• Industrial Property

    Commercial property, also called commercial real estate, investment property or income property, is real estate (buildings or land) intended to generate a profit, either from capital gains or rental income. Commercial property includes office buildings, medical centers, hotels, malls, retail stores, multifamily housing buildings, farm land, warehouses, and garages. In many states, residential property containing more than a certain number of units qualifies as commercial property for borrowing and tax purposes. (more…)

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  • Valuation

    In finance, valuation is the process of determining the present value (PV) of an asset. In a business context, it is often the hypothetical price that a third party would pay for a given asset. Valuations can be done on assets (for example, investments in marketable securities such as companies’ shares and related rights, business enterprises, or intangible assets such as patents, data and trademarks) or on liabilities (e.g., bonds issued by a company). Valuations are needed for many reasons such as investment analysis, capital budgeting, merger and acquisition transactions, financial reporting, taxable events to determine the proper tax liability.

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  • Enterprise Value

    Enterprise value (EV), total enterprise value (TEV), or firm value (FV) is an economic measure reflecting the market value of a business (i.e. as distinct from market price). It is a sum of claims by all claimants: creditors (secured and unsecured) and shareholders (preferred and common). Enterprise value is one of the fundamental metrics used in business valuation, financial analysis, accounting, portfolio analysis, and risk analysis.

    Enterprise value is more comprehensive than market capitalization, which only reflects common equity. Importantly, EV reflects the opportunistic nature of business and may change substantially over time because of both external and internal conditions. Therefore, financial analysts often use a comfortable range of EV in their calculations.

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  • The Ins and Outs of Asset-Based Loans

    What it is: Simply put, asset-based loans are based on assets, generally accounts receivable and inventory, that are used as collateral. You’re putting your future revenue on the line to gain access to money right now.

    Asset-based lenders will advance funds based on an agreed percentage of the secured assets’ value. The percentage is generally 70 percent to 80 percent of eligible receivables and 50 percent of finished inventory.

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  • Expert Witness

    An expert witness, particularly in common law countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States, is a person whose opinion by virtue of education, training, certification, skills or experience, is accepted by the judge as an expert. The judge may consider the witness’s specialized (scientific, technical or other) opinion about evidence or about facts before the court within the expert’s area of expertise, to be referred to as an “expert opinion”. Expert witnesses may also deliver “expert evidence” within the area of their expertise. Their testimony may be rebutted by testimony from other experts or by other evidence or facts.

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  • Intangible Assets

    An intangible asset is an asset that lacks physical substance. Examples are patents, copyright, franchises, goodwill, trademarks, and trade names, as well as software. This is in contrast to physical assets (machinery, buildings, etc.) and financial assets (government securities, etc.). An intangible asset is usually very difficult to valuate. They suffer from typical market failures of non-rivalry and non-excludability. Today, a large part of the corporate economy (NPV) consists of intangible assets.

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  • Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP)

    Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) can be considered the quality control standards applicable for real property, personal property, intangible assets, and business valuation appraisal analysis and reports in the United States and its territories. USPAP, as it is commonly known, was first developed in the 1980s by a joint committee representing the major U.S. and Canadian appraisal organizations. As a result of the savings and loan crisis, the Appraisal Foundation (TAF) was formed by these same groups, along with support and input from major industry and educational groups, and TAF took over administration of USPAP. (more…)

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  • Ad Valorem Tax

    An ad valorem tax (Latin for “according to value”) is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property. It is typically imposed at the time of a transaction, as in the case of a sales tax or value-added tax (VAT). An ad valorem tax may also be imposed annually, as in the case of a real or personal property tax, or in connection with another significant event (e.g. inheritance tax, expatriation tax, or tariff). In some countries, a stamp duty is imposed as an ad valorem tax.

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  • The Standards of Financial Reporting

    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a set of accounting guidelines that ensure accuracy and consistency in corporate finances across industries and national boundaries. More than 100 countries force public companies to observe IFRS guidelines. The U.S. has its own accounting standards known as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

    Accurate reporting of finances is an important condition for a fair and competitive marketplace. Inaccurate or falsified reports can have detrimental effects on businesses and consumers alike. Thus, IFRS and GAAP were created to standardize the way these reports are created and distributed.

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  • What Is Financial Reporting?

    Financial reporting is the process of documenting and communicating financial activities and performance over specific time periods, typically on a quarterly or yearly basis. Companies use financial reports to organize accounting data and report on current financial status.

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